Zamboanga del Sur
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Deuxième concile d\'Éphèse
Université de Pennsylvanie
Laguna de Szczecin
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Cómo comprar en Alibaba
Cómo transferir información entre un teléfono celular y una computadora
Provincia de Cremona
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Oscar Hammerstein II
Meridiano de Greenwich
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Islas menores de la Sonda
Isabelle Stevenson Award
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Enfermedad mixta del tejido conjuntivo (mixed connective tissue disease, MCTD)...consultoría médica
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Cómo borrar fotos en Facebook Messenger
You also can’t donate if you have any piercings that are less than 3 months old
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Élection présidentielle américaine de 2004
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Dominio de nivel superior patrocinado
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Cómo crear un folleto con Google Docs
Universidad de Nueva York
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Kingdom of Prussia
Cómo cambiar la dirección MAC de una computadora en Windows
Cómo acceder a otra computadora en la misma red en PC o Mac
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Cómo entrenar a tu cachorro para que haga sus necesidades
Fracturas del codo...consultoría médica
Points of Authority
Cómo conectar una computadora a la televisión con un cable HDMI
Introducción a los problemas del pie...consultoría médica
Have a Cup of Coffee Instead of Dessert
Libro I de los Macabeos
Voix sur IP
What are the common types of esophageal cancer?
Cómo configurar tu computadora en una red de área local
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Marshmallows (Mäusespeck) schmelzen
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Academic ranks in Thailand
How many deaths have occurred related to inclined baby sleepers?
District de Baabda
Make it a habit
Cómo eliminar el historial reciente en Google Chrome
Cómo cerrar sesión en Gmail
Transferencia de archivos
Anexo:Reyes de Inglaterra
Cómo insertar un pesario
Métodos anticonceptivos de conocimiento de la fertilidad...consultoría médica
Cómo transferir música de tu iPod a tu computadora
Eine Gesichtsmaske nähen
Cómo apostar en el fútbol
Escuela de negocios Harvard
A través del espejo y lo que Alicia encontró allí
How to Keep a Rabbit in an Apartment
Nivel del mar
Provincia de Islas menores de la Sonda orientales
How to Use Google Drive
Symptoms of tooth root cavity
Auf Fotos gut aussehen
Bursitis calcánea inferior...Emergencia
How to Cure Pseudomonas
Introduction to Gastritis and Peptic Ulcer Disease...Emergency
Why did I receive a 1095-B Qualifying Health Coverage Notice?
Destruction de la couche d\'ozone
Cómo literalmente rotar la pantalla de tu computadora
Rey de romanos
National University of San Marcos
Mormonism and polygamy
Cómo aprobar un examen sin estudiar
Cómo hablar simlish
Retinitis pigmentosa...consultoría médica
Connection with Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Historia del antiguo Israel
Cómo crear una historieta
Macedonia del Norte
Condado de Wayne (Carolina del Norte)
Cómo reducir la acumulación del ácido láctico en los músculos
Cómo lucir más delgada en las fotos
Cómo verificar información errónea
Carlos Delgado Altieri
Linfomas no hodgkinianos...Emergencia
Cómo quitar las patillas (para chicas)
Inmaculado Corazón de María
Cómo evitar que un gato macho marque territorio
Cómo eliminar el dolor de los hombros
Reflujo urinario...consultoría médica
Universidad de Wisconsin-Madison
- Grey's Anatomy
- Psychedelic rock
- How to Reduce Your Bust
- John von Neumann
- Antiretroviral therapy
- John von Neumann
- Cómo activar Microsoft Office en una computadora o Mac
- Cómo limpiar el sistema linfático
- Cómo enderezar una dentadura torcida
- Cómo detectar señales de infidelidad
- How do I qualify for coverage?
- Alfred Mahan
- Comment utiliser BitTorrent
- Tratamiento del dolor y la inflamación...consultoría médica
- Piedra de imán
- Catedral de Toledo
- Preakness Stakes
- Cómo divertirse con la computadora
- Xbox One
- Alberto Contador
- Alberto Contador
- Historia del antiguo Israel
- Cómo crear una historieta
- Alberto Contador
- Jean Grey
- Université de Pennsylvanie
- How to Strum a Guitar
- Cómo hacer mosaicos
- Corey Feldman
- Mormonism and polygamy
- Balthasar Neumann
- Scientific visualization
- Grey Cup
- Geoffrey Chaucer
- Cómo jugar a la búsqueda del tesoro
- Financial Times
- Cómo hacer un cómic
- Cómo transferir música de tu iPod a tu computadora
- World Golf Hall of Fame
- Interacción persona-computadora
- Cómo lucir más delgada en las fotos
- Cómo transferir información entre un teléfono celular y una computadora
- Cómo conectar una computadora a la televisión con un cable HDMI
- Cómo quitarse las uñas postizas
- Cómo enderezar los dedos de los pies
- How to Download Movies Online Using Bittorrent Software
- Cómo calcular el valor del oro chatarra
- Ernakulam district
- Cómo encontrar el número de modelo de una computadora portátil HP
- Cómo conectar parlantes a tu computadora portátil
- A través del espejo y lo que Alicia encontró allí
- Química inorgánica
- Tennessee Titans
- John von Neumann
- Carey Mulligan
- Ácido sulfúrico
- Aire comprimido
- Is Acid Reflux Genetic?
- Cómo comprar en Alibaba
- Cómo reparar los altavoces de una computadora
- How to Build a Mousetrap Car
- Cómo acceder a las fotos de iCloud desde tu computadora
- Valle de los Reyes
- Cómo hacer que tu computadora portátil trabaje más rápido
- How to Contact a Seller on Amazon
- Natural Resources Conservation Service
- Cómo configurar tu computadora en una red de área local
- Universidad Brandeis
- Cómo contactar a Amazon
- Mauritania Airlines
- Cómo conectar una computadora de escritorio a una laptop
- Cómo reducir la acumulación del ácido láctico en los músculos
- Bandas de frecuencia
- Cómo eliminar las cicatrices del acné quístico
- Cincinnati Reds
- Cómo enderezar madera
- Cómo enderezar tus dientes sin frenillos
- Cómo hacer una solución para limpiar alfombras
- Cómo instalar un sistema operativo en una computadora nueva
- Temporada 2021 del Campeonato Mundial de Rally
- Cómo usar bittorrent
- Dry season
- Anexo:Reyes de España
- How to Know when Your Hermit Crab Is Dead
- What steps to take
- How to Say Hello in Japanese
- Points of Authority
- Cómo formatear una computadora Dell
- Richard Dreyfuss
- Cómo encender una computadora automáticamente a una hora específica
- Cómo diagnosticar problemas de la computadora
- Food Fix: Keto Basics
- How to Keep a Rabbit in an Apartment
- Endosteal implant procedure
- Gambito de rey
- Cómo ajustar los graves en una computadora
- Healthline’s picks of the best collagen supplements for better skin
- Cómo curar un nervio comprimido
- What are the risks of hot yoga while pregnant?
- The bottom line
- Cómo detectar el acceso remoto a una computadora
- Clinical trials
- How to Be Photogenic
- Babesiosis...consultoría médica
- What causes them?
- Anexo:Óscar al mejor director
- Cómo evitar la fatiga ocular mientras trabajas en la computadora
- Cómo hacer juegos de computadora
- What is chiropractic care?
- Offer help in accessing medications, groceries, etc
- Cómo abordar un avión
- Kate Higgins
- Toome Upper
- Accuracy of new blood tests
- Anexo:Reyes de Lotaringia y duques de Lorena
- The bottom line
- Anexo:Reyes y emperadores de Alemania
- Cómo hackear una cuenta de computadora protegida por contraseña
- Anexo:Reyes de Inglaterra
- Cómo enderezar un árbol
- Cómo tratar los granos en el cuero cabelludo
- Derecho divino de los reyes
- Cómo encontrar o cambiar el administrador de una computadora
- Consonante africada
- When should I be concerned about my baby’s umbilical bleeding?
- Cómo transmitir desde una GoPro a una computadora usando el reproductor multimedia VLC
- Cómo usar Kik en una computadora
- Key takeaways
- Not all supplements are the same
- How to Play With Pokémon Cards
- How to Grow a Pumpkin
- Jian zi
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- Red Arrows
- Síndrome del cromosoma X frágil...Emergencia
- What are the common types of esophageal cancer?
- Symptoms of tooth root cavity
- What are the symptoms of Kienbock’s disease?
- Types of Fibrinogen Deficiency
- Appendicitis is one of the most common causes
- Cómo ordenar alfabéticamente en Documentos de Google
- How to Become a More Social Person
- Oscar Hammerstein II
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- El rey y yo (musical)
- Cómo transferir fotos de una cámara a una computadora sin ningún software
- District de Baabda
- How to Overcome Guilt After Cheating
- Academic ranks in Thailand
- Cómo saber si tienes spyware en tu computadora
- Banda S
- Small but agile
- Should you avoid casein even if you don’t have a food allergy?
- Familia de protocolos de internet
- The takeaway
- Monterrey (California)
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- Trastornos del aprendizaje...consultoría médica
- Living a great life with MS
- Perform a smell test
- Cómo mejorar tus calificaciones si estás reprobando
- Cómo mejorar la seguridad de una red inalámbrica doméstica
- Cómo acceder a otra computadora en la misma red en PC o Mac
- Introducción a los problemas del pie...consultoría médica
- When to see a doctor
- Cómo conectar un Chromecast a la computadora
- Introducción a las infecciones por el virus del herpes...Emergencia
- When would I need to file an appeal to Medicare?
- Cómo cambiar el tamaño de las letras en una computadora
- Contacto visual
- Cómo hacer que Internet Explorer sea el navegador predeterminado
- Cómo arrancar una computadora desde un CD
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- How does psoriasis affect pregnancy?
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- Cómo usar VLC Media Player para transmitir multimedia en otra computadora
- What is hallux rigidus?
- Urinary Tract Infections During Pregnancy...medical consulting
- How to Kiss a Girl
- Reynaldo Hahn
- Johann Balthasar Neumann
- Anexo:Reyes de Bohemia
- Symptoms of depression and bipolar disorder
- How to Contact a Seller on Amazon
- How is it working?
- Geoffrey Keating
- Instituto de la Caridad
- Don’t jump to conclusions
- Christopher Awdry
- What makes an influenza pandemic?
- Rey de romanos
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- Extra tips for misting up your skin health
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- What causes childhood depression?
- Ways to overcome the fear
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- What are the symptoms of Meckel’s diverticulum?
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- Síndrome de Reye...Emergencia
- The connection
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- Guerra del rey Jorge
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- Síndrome de Reye...consultoría médica
- Mecanismos de defensa del sistema respiratorio...consultoría médica
- Le Point
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- Anexo:Reyes hititas
- Cómo conectar dos computadoras por USB
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- What causes finger twitching?
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- Electric light
- Zona metropolitana de Monterrey
- Sistema Universitario del Norte de Texas
- Cómo compartir la conexión de internet de tu computadora con tu teléfono celular a través de wifi
- Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey
- Anexo:Reyes de Wessex
- Cómo descargar todos los archivos de Google Drive en una computadora de escritorio o una Mac
- Cómo hacer la raya del cabello
- Comment vivre dans un foyer avec plusieurs chiens
- Gouvernement polonais en exil
- Cómo etiquetar caras en Google Fotos
- Genzebe Dibaba
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- Drink Coffee
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- Cómo asignar una unidad de red
- Presidente del Estado de Palestina
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Russian Civil War
From Wikipedia the free encyclopedia
World War I
Main article: World War I
The Russian Empire fought in World War I from 1914 alongside France and the United Kingdom (Triple Entente) against Germany Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire (Central Powers).
Main article: February Revolution
The February Revolution of 1917 resulted in the abdication of Nicholas II of Russia. As a result the Russian Provisional Government was established and soviets elected councils of workers soldiers and peasants were organized throughout the country leading to a situation of dual power. Russia was proclaimed a republic in September of the same year.
Main article: October Revolution
The Provisional Government led by Socialist Revolutionary Party politician Alexander Kerensky was unable to solve the most pressing issues of the country most importantly to end the war with the Central Powers. A failed military coup by General Lavr Kornilov in September 1917 led to a surge in support for the Bolshevik party who gained majorities in the soviets which until then had been controlled by the Socialist Revolutionaries. Promising an end to the war and "all power to the Soviets " the Bolsheviks then ended dual power by suppressing the Provisional Government in late October on the eve of the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets in what would be the second Revolution of 1917. Despite the Bolsheviks' seizure of power they lost to the Socialist Revolutionary Party in the 1917 Russian Constituent Assembly election and the Constituent Assembly was dissolved by the Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks soon lost the support of other far-left allies such as the Left Socialist-Revolutionaries due to their acceptance of the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk presented by Germany.
Formation of the Red Army
Main article: Red Army
From mid-1917 onwards the Russian Army the successor-organisation of the old Imperial Russian Army started to disintegrate; the Bolsheviks used the volunteer-based Red Guards as their main military force augmented by an armed military component of the Cheka (the Bolshevik state security apparatus). In January 1918 after significant Bolshevik reverses in combat the future People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs Leon Trotsky headed the reorganization of the Red Guards into a Workers' and Peasants' Red Army in order to create a more effective fighting force. The Bolsheviks appointed political commissars to each unit of the Red Army to maintain morale and to ensure loyalty.
In June 1918 when it had become apparent that a revolutionary army composed solely of workers would not suffice Trotsky instituted mandatory conscription of the rural peasantry into the Red Army. The Bolsheviks overcame opposition of rural Russians to Red Army conscription units by taking hostages and shooting them when necessary in order to force compliance. The forced conscription drive had mixed results successfully creating a larger army than the Whites but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology.
The Red Army also utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists" (voenspetsy); sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty. At the start of the civil war former Tsarist officers formed three-quarters of the Red Army officer-corps. By its end 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.
Main articles: White movement Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War Pro-independence movements in Russian Civil War and Left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks
While resistance to the Red Guards began on the very day after the Bolshevik uprising the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk and the instinct of one-party rule became a catalyst for the formation of anti-Bolshevik groups both inside and outside Russia pushing them into action against the new Soviet government.
A loose confederation of anti-Bolshevik forces aligned against the Communist government including landowners republicans conservatives middle-class citizens reactionaries pro-monarchists liberals army generals non-Bolshevik socialists who still had grievances and democratic reformists voluntarily united only in their opposition to Bolshevik rule. Their military forces bolstered by forced conscriptions and terror as well as foreign influence under the leadership of General Nikolai Yudenich Admiral Alexander Kolchak and General Anton Denikin became known as the White movement (sometimes referred to as the "White Army") and controlled significant parts of the former Russian Empire for most of the war.
A Ukrainian nationalist movement was active in Ukraine during the war. More significant was the emergence of an anarchist political and military movement known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine or the Anarchist Black Army led by Nestor Makhno. The Black Army which counted numerous Jews and Ukrainian peasants in its ranks played a key part in halting Denikin's White Army offensive towards Moscow during 1919 later ejecting White forces from Crimea.
The remoteness of the Volga Region the Ural Region Siberia and the Far East was favorable for the anti-Bolshevik forces and the Whites set up a number of organizations in the cities of these regions. Some of the military forces were set up on the basis of clandestine officers organizations in the cities.
The Czechoslovak Legions had been part of the Russian Army and numbered around 30 000 troops by October 1917. They had an agreement with the new Bolshevik government to be evacuated from the Eastern Front via the port of Vladivostok to France. The transport from the Eastern Front to Vladivostok slowed down in the chaos and the troops became dispersed all along the Trans-Siberian Railway. Under pressure from the Central Powers Trotsky ordered the disarming and arrest of the legionaries which created tensions with the Bolsheviks.
The Western Allies armed and supported opponents of the Bolsheviks. They were worried about a possible Russo-German alliance the prospect of the Bolsheviks making good on their threats to default on Imperial Russia's massive foreign loans and the possibility that Communist revolutionary ideas would spread (a concern shared by many Central Powers). Hence many of these countries expressed their support for the Whites including the provision of troops and supplies. Winston Churchill declared that Bolshevism must be "strangled in its cradle". The British and French had supported Russia during World War I on a massive scale with war materials.
Main article: Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War
After the treaty it looked like much of that material would fall into the hands of the Germans. To meet this danger the Allies intervened with Great Britain and France sending troops into Russian ports. There were violent clashes with the Bolsheviks. Britain intervened in support of the White forces to defeat the Bolsheviks and prevent the spread of communism across Europe.
The German Empire created several short-lived satellite buffer states within its sphere of influence after the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk: the United Baltic Duchy Duchy of Courland and Semigallia Kingdom of Lithuania Kingdom of Poland the Belarusian People's Republic and the Ukrainian State. Following the defeat of Germany in World War I in November 1918 these states were abolished.
Finland was the first republic that declared its independence from Russia in December 1917 and established itself in the ensuing Finnish Civil War from January–May 1918. The Second Polish Republic Lithuania Latvia and Estonia formed their own armies immediately after the abolition of the Brest-Litovsk Treaty and the start of the Soviet westward offensive in November 1918.
Geography and Chronology
Main articles: Southern Front of the Russian Civil War North Russia Campaign Eastern Front of the Russian Civil War Yakut Revolt and Finnish Civil War
In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern the southern and the northwestern. It can also be roughly split into the following periods.
The first period lasted from the Revolution until the Armistice. Already on the date of the Revolution Cossack General Alexey Kaledin refused to recognize it and assumed full governmental authority in the Don region where the Volunteer Army began amassing support. The signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk also resulted in direct Allied intervention in Russia and the arming of military forces opposed to the Bolshevik government. There were also many German commanders who offered support against the Bolsheviks fearing a confrontation with them was impending as well.
During this first period the Bolsheviks took control of Central Asia out of the hands of the Provisional Government and White Army setting up a base for the Communist Party in the Steppe and Turkestan where nearly two million Russian settlers were located.
Most of the fighting in this first period was sporadic involving only small groups amid a fluid and rapidly shifting strategic situation. Among the antagonists were the Czechoslovak Legion the Poles of the 4th and 5th Rifle Divisions and the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian riflemen.
The second period of the war lasted from January to November 1919. At first the White armies' advances from the south (under Denikin) the east (under Kolchak) and the northwest (under Yudenich) were successful forcing the Red Army and its allies back on all three fronts. In July 1919 the Red Army suffered another reverse after a mass defection of units in the Crimea to the anarchist Black Army under Nestor Makhno enabling anarchist forces to consolidate power in Ukraine. Leon Trotsky soon reformed the Red Army concluding the first of two military alliances with the anarchists. In June the Red Army first checked Kolchak's advance. After a series of engagements assisted by a Black Army offensive against White supply lines the Red Army defeated Denikin's and Yudenich's armies in October and November.
The third period of the war was the extended siege of the last White forces in the Crimea. General Wrangel had gathered the remnants of Denikin's armies occupying much of the Crimea. An attempted invasion of southern Ukraine was rebuffed by the Black Army under Makhno's command. Pursued into Crimea by Makhno's troops Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. After an abortive move north against the Red Army Wrangel's troops were forced south by Red Army and Black Army forces; Wrangel and the remains of his army were evacuated to Constantinople in November 1920.
In Central Asia Red Army troops continued to face resistance into 1923 where basmachi (armed bands of Islamic guerrillas) had formed to fight the Bolshevik takeover. The Soviets engaged non-Russian peoples in Central Asia like Magaza Masanchi commander of the Dungan Cavalry Regiment to fight against the Basmachis. The Communist Party did not completely dismantle this group until 1934.
General Anatoly Pepelyayev continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923. The regions of Kamchatka and Northern Sakhalin remained under Japanese occupation until their treaty with the Soviet Union in 1925 when their forces were finally withdrawn.
The results of the civil war were momentous. Soviet demographer Boris Urlanis estimated the total number of men killed in action in the Civil War and Polish–Soviet War as 300 000 (125 000 in the Red Army 175 500 White armies and Poles) and the total number of military personnel dead from disease (on both sides) as 450 000. Boris Sennikov estimated the total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920 to 1922 resulting from the war executions and imprisonment in concentration camps as approximately 240 000.
During the Red Terror estimates of Cheka executions range from 12 733 to 1.7 million. William Henry Chamberlin suspected that there were about 50 000. Evan Mawdsley suspected that there were more than 12 733 and less than 200 000. :286 Some sources claimed at least 250 000 summary executions of "enemies of the people" with estimates reaching above a million. More modest estimates put the numbers executed by the Bolsheviks between December 1917 and February 1922 at around 28 000 per year with roughly 10 000 executions during the Red Terror.
Some 300 000–500 000 Cossacks were killed or deported during Decossackization out of a population of around three million. An estimated 100 000 Jews were killed in Ukraine mostly by the White Army. Punitive organs of the All Great Don Cossack Host sentenced 25 000 people to death between May 1918 and January 1919. Kolchak's government shot 25 000 people in Ekaterinburg province alone. The White Terror as it would become known killed about 300 000 people in total.
At the end of the Civil War the Russian SFSR was exhausted and near ruin. The droughts of 1920 and 1921 as well as the 1921 famine worsened the disaster still further. Disease had reached pandemic proportions with 3 000 000 dying of typhus in 1920 alone. Millions more also died of widespread starvation wholesale massacres by both sides and pogroms against Jews in Ukraine and southern Russia. By 1922 there were at least 7 000 000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.
Another one to two million people known as the White émigrés fled Russia many with General Wrangel—some through the Far East others west into the newly independent Baltic countries. These émigrés included a large percentage of the educated and skilled population of Russia.
The Russian economy was devastated by the war with factories and bridges destroyed cattle and raw materials pillaged mines flooded and machines damaged. The industrial production value descended to one-seventh of the value of 1913 and agriculture to one-third. According to Pravda "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The railways barely crawl. The houses are crumbling. The towns are full of refuse. Epidemics spread and death strikes—industry is ruined." It is estimated that the total output of mines and factories in 1921 had fallen to 20% of the pre-World War level and many crucial items experienced an even more drastic decline. For example cotton production fell to 5% and iron to 2% of pre-war levels.
War Communism saved the Soviet government during the Civil War but much of the Russian economy had ground to a standstill. The peasants responded to requisitions by refusing to till the land. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. The number of horses declined from 35 million in 1916 to 24 million in 1920 and cattle from 58 to 37 million. The exchange rate with the US dollar declined from two rubles in 1914 to 1 200 in 1920.
With the end of the war the Communist Party no longer faced an acute military threat to its existence and power. However the perceived threat of another intervention combined with the failure of socialist revolutions in other countries—most notably the German Revolution—contributed to the continued militarisation of Soviet society. Although Russia experienced extremely rapid economic growth in the 1930s the combined effect of World War I and the Civil War left a lasting scar on Russian society and had permanent effects on the development of the Soviet Union.
British historian Orlando Figes has contended that the root of the Whites' defeat was their inability to dispel the popular image that they were not only associated with Tsarist Russia but supportive of a Tsarist restoration as well.
The Road to Calvary (1922–41) by Aleksey Nikolayevich Tolstoy
Chapaev (1923) by Dmitri Furmanov
The Iron Flood (1924) by Alexander Serafimovich
Red Cavalry (1926) by Isaac Babel
The Rout (1927) by Alexander Fadeyev
Conquered City (1932) by Victor Serge
Futility (1922) by William Gerhardie
How the Steel Was Tempered (1934) by Nikolai Ostrovsky
Optimistic Tragedy (1934) by Vsevolod Vishnevsky
And Quiet Flows the Don (1928–1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov
The Don Flows Home to the Sea (1940) by Mikhail Sholokhov
Doctor Zhivago (1957) by Boris Pasternak
The White Guard (1966) by Mikhail Bulgakov
Byzantium Endures (1981) by Michael Moorcock
Chevengur (written in 1927 first published in 1988 in the USSR) by Andrei Platonov.
Fall of Giants (2010) by Ken Follett
A Splendid Little War (2012) by Derek Robinson (novelist)
Storm Over Asia (1928)
Thirteen (1936) directed by Mikhail Romm
We Are from Kronstadt (1936) directed by Yefim Dzigan
Knight Without Armour (1937)
The Year 1919 (1938) directed by Ilya Trauberg
The Baltic Marines (1939) directed by A. Faintsimmer
Shchors (1939) directed by Dovzhenko
Pavel Korchagin (1956) directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov
The Forty-First (1956) directed by Grigori Chukhrai
The Communist (film) (1957) directed by Yuli Raizman
And Quiet Flows the Don (1958) directed by Sergei Gerasimov
The Wind (1958) directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov
Doctor Zhivago (1965) directed by David Lean
The Elusive Avengers (1966)
The Red and the White (1967)
White Sun of the Desert (1970)
The Flight (1970) directed by A. Alov and V. Naumov
Nicholas and Alexandra (1971) directed by Franklin Schaffner briefly mentioned
Reds (1981) directed by Warren Beatty
Corto Maltese in Siberia (2002)
Nine Lives of Nestor Makhno (2005/2007)
Sunstroke (2014) directed by Nikita Mikhalkov
Battlefield 1 (2016)
Main article: October Revolution
In the October Revolution the Bolshevik Party directed the Red Guard (armed groups of workers and Imperial army deserters) to seize control of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg) and immediately began the armed takeover of cities and villages throughout the former Russian Empire. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia.
Initial anti-Bolshevik uprisings
Main articles: Kerensky-Krasnov uprising Junker mutiny and Volunteer Army
The first attempt to regain power from the Bolsheviks was made by the Kerensky-Krasnov uprising in October 1917. It was supported by the Junker Mutiny in Petrograd but was quickly put down by the Red Guard notably including the Latvian Rifle Division.
The initial groups that fought against the Communists were local Cossack armies that had declared their loyalty to the Provisional Government. Kaledin of the Don Cossacks and General Grigory Semenov of the Siberian Cossacks were prominent among them. The leading Tsarist officers of the Imperial Russian Army also started to resist. In November General Mikhail Alekseev the Tsar's Chief of Staff during the First World War began to organize the Volunteer Army in Novocherkassk. Volunteers of this small army were mostly officers of the old Russian army military cadets and students. In December 1917 Alekseev was joined by General Lavr Kornilov Denikin and other Tsarist officers who had escaped from the jail where they had been imprisoned following the abortive Kornilov affair just before the Revolution. :27 At the beginning of December 1917 groups of volunteers and Cossacks captured Rostov.
Having stated in the November 1917 "Declaration of Rights of Nations of Russia" that any nation under imperial Russian rule should be immediately given the power of self-determination the Bolsheviks had begun to usurp the power of the Provisional Government in the territories of Central Asia soon after the establishment of the Turkestan Committee in Tashkent. In April 1917 the Provisional Government set up this committee which was mostly made up of former Tsarist officials. The Bolsheviks attempted to take control of the Committee in Tashkent on 12 September 1917 but it was unsuccessful and many leaders were arrested. However because the Committee lacked representation of the native population and poor Russian settlers they had to release the Bolshevik prisoners almost immediately due to public outcry and a successful takeover of this government body took place two months later in November. The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917 had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917. However after the Bolshevik destruction of the Provisional Government in Tashkent Muslim elites formed an autonomous government in Turkestan commonly called the "Kokand autonomy" (or simply Kokand). The White Russians supported this government body which lasted several months because of Bolshevik troop isolation from Moscow. In January 1918 the Soviet forces under Lt. Col. Muravyov invaded Ukraine and invested Kiev where the Central Council of the Ukrainian People's Republic held power. With the help of the Kiev Arsenal Uprising the Bolsheviks captured the city on 26 January. :35
Peace with the Central Powers
Main article: Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
The Bolsheviks decided to immediately make peace with the Central Powers as they had promised the Russian people before the Revolution. Vladimir Lenin's political enemies attributed that decision to his sponsorship by the Foreign Office of Wilhelm II German Emperor offered to Lenin in hope that with a revolution Russia would withdraw from World War I. That suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. However after the military fiasco of the summer offensive (June 1917) by the Russian Provisional Government had devastated the structure of the Russian Army it became crucial that Lenin realize the promised peace. Even before the failed summer offensive the Russian population was very skeptical about the continuation of the war. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia.
On 16 December 1917 an armistice was signed between Russia and the Central Powers in Brest-Litovsk and peace talks began. :42 As a condition for peace the proposed treaty by the Central Powers conceded huge portions of the former Russian Empire to the German Empire and the Ottoman Empire greatly upsetting nationalists and conservatives. Leon Trotsky representing the Bolsheviks refused at first to sign the treaty while continuing to observe a unilateral cease-fire following the policy of "No war no peace".
In view of this on 18 February 1918 the Germans began Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front encountering virtually no resistance in a campaign that lasted 11 days. Signing a formal peace treaty was the only option in the eyes of the Bolsheviks because the Russian Army was demobilized and the newly formed Red Guard was incapable of stopping the advance. They also understood that the impending counterrevolutionary resistance was more dangerous than the concessions of the treaty which Lenin viewed as temporary in the light of aspirations for a world revolution. The Soviets acceded to a peace treaty and the formal agreement the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was ratified on 6 March. The Soviets viewed the treaty as merely a necessary and expedient means to end the war.
Ukraine South Russia and Caucasus (1918)
Main articles: Ukrainian People's Republic Kiev Arsenal January Uprising Ice March 26 Baku Commissars German Caucasus Expedition Battle of Baku Central Caspian Dictatorship and Romanian military intervention in Bessarabia
In Ukraine the German-Austrian Operation Faustschlag had by April 1918 removed the Bolsheviks from Ukraine. The German and Austro-Hungarian victories in Ukraine were due to the apathy of the locals and the inferior fighting skills of Bolsheviks troops compared to their Austro-Hungarian and German counterparts.
Under Soviet pressure the Volunteer Army embarked on the epic Ice March from Yekaterinodar to Kuban on 22 February 1918 where they joined with the Kuban Cossacks to mount an abortive assault on Yekaterinodar. :29 The Soviets recaptured Rostov on the next day. :29 Kornilov was killed in the fighting on 13 April and Denikin took over command. Fighting off its pursuers without respite the army succeeded in breaking its way through back towards the Don where the Cossack uprising against Bolsheviks had started.
The Baku Soviet Commune was established on 13 April. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti on 8 June. The Ottoman Army of Islam (in coalition with Azerbaijan) drove them out of Baku on 26 July 1918. Subsequently the Dashanaks Right SRs and Mensheviks started negotiations with Gen. Dunsterville the commander of the British troops in Persia. The Bolsheviks and their Left SR allies were opposed to it but on 25 July the majority of the Soviets voted to call in the British and the Bolsheviks resigned. The Baku Soviet Commune ended its existence and was replaced by the Central Caspian Dictatorship.
In June 1918 the Volunteer Army numbering some 9 000 men started its Second Kuban campaign. Yekaterinodar was encircled on 1 August and fell on the 3rd. In September–October heavy fighting took place at Armavir and Stavropol. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. This time Red forces had no escape and by the beginning of 1919 the whole Northern Caucasus was controlled by the Volunteer Army.
In October Gen. Alekseev the leader of the White armies in southern Russia died of a heart attack. An agreement was reached between Denikin head of the Volunteer Army and Pyotr Krasnov Ataman of the Don Cossacks which united their forces under the sole command of Denikin. The Armed Forces of South Russia were thus created.
Eastern Russia Siberia and Far East of Russia (1918)
Main article: Revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion
The revolt of the Czechoslovak Legion broke out in May 1918 and the legionaries took control of Chelyabinsk in June. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. Within a month the Czechoslovak Legion controlled most of the Trans-Siberian Railroad between Lake Baikal and the Ural regions. During the summer Bolshevik power in Siberia was eliminated. The Provisional Government of Autonomous Siberia formed in Omsk. By the end of July the Whites had extended their gains westwards capturing Ekaterinburg on 26 July 1918. Shortly before the fall of Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918 the former Tsar and his family were murdered by the Ural Soviet to prevent them from falling into the hands of the Whites.
The Mensheviks and Socialist-Revolutionaries supported peasants fighting against Soviet control of food supplies. In May 1918 with the support of the Czechoslovak Legion they took Samara and Saratov establishing the Committee of Members of the Constituent Assembly—known as the "Komuch". By July the authority of the Komuch extended over much of the area controlled by the Czechoslovak Legion. The Komuch pursued an ambivalent social policy combining democratic and socialist measures such as the institution of an eight-hour working day with "restorative" actions such as returning both factories and land to their former owners. After the fall of Kazan Vladimir Lenin called for the dispatch of Petrograd workers to the Kazan Front: "We must send down the maximum number of Petrograd workers: (1) a few dozen 'leaders' like Kayurov; (2) a few thousand militants 'from the ranks'".
After a series of reverses at the front the Bolsheviks' War Commissar Trotsky instituted increasingly harsh measures in order to prevent unauthorised withdrawals desertions and mutinies in the Red Army. In the field the Cheka special investigations forces termed the Special Punitive Department of the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission for Combat of Counter-Revolution and Sabotage or Special Punitive Brigades followed the Red Army conducting field tribunals and summary executions of soldiers and officers who deserted retreated from their positions or failed to display sufficient offensive zeal. The Cheka special investigations forces were also charged with the detection of sabotage and counter-revolutionary activity by Red Army soldiers and commanders. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. In August frustrated at continued reports of Red Army troops breaking under fire Trotsky authorised the formation of barrier troops – stationed behind unreliable Red Army units and given orders to shoot anyone withdrawing from the battle line without authorisation.
In September 1918 Komuch the Siberian Provisional Government and other local anti-Soviet governments met in Ufa and agreed to form a new Provisional All-Russian Government in Omsk headed by a Directory of five: two Socialist-Revolutionaries (Nikolai Avksentiev and Vladimir Zenzinov) two Kadets (V. A. Vinogradov and PV Vologodskii) and General Vasily Boldyrev.
By the fall of 1918 anti-Bolshevik White forces in the east included the People's Army (Komuch) the Siberian Army (of the Siberian Provisional Government) and insurgent Cossack units of Orenburg Ural Siberia Semirechye Baikal Amur and Ussuri Cossacks nominally under the orders of Gen. V.G. Boldyrev Commander-in-Chief appointed by the Ufa Directorate.
On the Volga Col. Kappel's White detachment captured Kazan on 7 August but the Reds re-captured the city on 8 September 1918 following a counteroffensive. On the 11th Simbirsk fell and on 8 October Samara. The Whites fell back eastwards to Ufa and Orenburg.
In Omsk the Russian Provisional Government quickly came under the influence – then the dominance – of its new War Minister Rear-Admiral Kolchak. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. The members of the Directory were arrested and Kolchak proclaimed the "Supreme Ruler of Russia". By mid-December 1918 White armies had to leave Ufa but they balanced this failure with a successful drive towards Perm which they took on 24 December.
Central Asia (1918)
In February 1918 the Red Army overthrew the White Russian-supported Kokand autonomy of Turkestan. Although this move seemed to solidify Bolshevik power in Central Asia more troubles soon arose for the Red Army as the Allied Forces began to intervene. British support of the White Army provided the greatest threat to the Red Army in Central Asia during 1918. Great Britain sent three prominent military leaders to the area. One was Lt. Col. Bailey who recorded a mission to Tashkent from where the Bolsheviks forced him to flee. Another was Gen. Malleson leading the Malleson Mission who assisted the Mensheviks in Ashkhabad (now the capital of Turkmenistan) with a small Anglo-Indian force. However he failed to gain control of Tashkent Bukhara and Khiva. The third was Maj. Gen. Dunsterville who the Bolsheviks drove out of Central Asia only a month after his arrival in August 1918. Despite setbacks due to British invasions during 1918 the Bolsheviks continued to make progress in bringing the Central Asian population under their influence. The first regional congress of the Russian Communist Party convened in the city of Tashkent in June 1918 in order to build support for a local Bolshevik Party.
Left SR uprising
Main article: Left SR uprising
In July two Left SR and Cheka employees Blyumkin and Andreyev assassinated the German ambassador Count Mirbach. In Moscow a Left SR uprising was put down by the Bolsheviks using Cheka military detachments. Lenin personally apologized to the Germans for the assassination. Mass arrests of Socialist-Revolutionaries followed.
Estonia Latvia and Petrograd
Main articles: Estonian War of Independence Latvian War of Independence and Battle of Petrograd
Estonia cleared its territory of the Red Army by January 1919. Baltic German volunteers captured Riga from the Red Latvian Riflemen on 22 May but the Estonian 3rd Division defeated the Baltic Germans a month later aiding the establishment of the Republic of Latvia.
This rendered possible another threat to the Red Army—one from Gen. Yudenich who had spent the summer organizing the Northwestern Army in Estonia with local and British support. In October 1919 he tried to capture Petrograd in a sudden assault with a force of around 20 000 men. The attack was well-executed using night attacks and lightning cavalry maneuvers to turn the flanks of the defending Red Army. Yudenich also had six British tanks which caused panic whenever they appeared. The Allies gave large quantities of aid to Yudenich who however complained that he was receiving insufficient support.
By 19 October Yudenich's troops had reached the outskirts of the city. Some members of the Bolshevik central committee in Moscow were willing to give up Petrograd but Trotsky refused to accept the loss of the city and personally organized its defenses. Trotsky himself declared "It is impossible for a little army of 15 000 ex-officers to master a working-class capital of 700 000 inhabitants." He settled on a strategy of urban defense proclaiming that the city would "defend itself on its own ground" and that the White Army would be lost in a labyrinth of fortified streets and there "meet its grave".
Trotsky armed all available workers men and women ordering the transfer of military forces from Moscow. Within a few weeks the Red Army defending Petrograd had tripled in size and outnumbered Yudenich three to one. At this point Yudenich short of supplies decided to call off the siege of the city and withdrew repeatedly asking permission to withdraw his army across the border to Estonia. However units retreating across the border were disarmed and interned by order of the Estonian government which had entered into peace negotiations with the Soviet Government on 16 September and had been informed by the Soviet authorities of their 6 November decision that should the White Army be allowed to retreat into Estonia it would be pursued across the border by the Reds. In fact the Reds attacked Estonian army positions and fighting continued until a cease-fire went into effect on 3 January 1920. Following the Treaty of Tartu most of Yudenich's soldiers went into exile. Former Imperial Russian and then Finnish Gen. Mannerheim planned an intervention to help the Whites in Russia capture Petrograd. However he did not gain the necessary support for the endeavour. Lenin considered it "completely certain that the slightest aid from Finland would have determined the fate of [the city]".
Northern Russia (1919)
Main article: North Russia intervention
The British occupied Murmansk and alongside the Americans seized Arkhangelsk. With the retreat of Kolchak in Siberia they pulled their troops out of the cities before the winter trapped them in the port. The remaining White forces under Yevgeny Miller evacuated the region in February 1920.
At the beginning of March 1919 the general offensive of the Whites on the eastern front began. Ufa was retaken on 13 March; by mid-April the White Army stopped at the Glazov–Chistopol–Bugulma–Buguruslan–Sharlyk line. Reds started their counteroffensive against Kolchak's forces at the end of April. The Red 5th Army led by the capable commander Tukhachevsky captured Elabuga on 26 May Sarapul on 2 June and Izevsk on the 7th and continued to push forward. Both sides had victories and losses but by the middle of summer the Red Army was larger than the White Army and had managed to recapture territory previously lost.
Following the abortive offensive at Chelyabinsk the White armies withdrew beyond the Tobol. In September 1919 a White offensive was launched against the Tobol front the last attempt to change the course of events. However on 14 October the Reds counterattacked and thus began the uninterrupted retreat of the Whites to the east. On 14 November 1919 the Red Army captured Omsk. Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. Retreat of the eastern front by White armies lasted three months until mid-February 1920 when the survivors after crossing Lake Baikal reached Chita area and joined Ataman Semenov's forces.
South Russia (1919)
The Cossacks had been unable to organise and capitalise on their successes at the end of 1918. By 1919 they had begun to run short of supplies. Consequently when the Soviet counteroffensive began in January 1919 under the Bolshevik leader Antonov-Ovseenko the Cossack forces rapidly fell apart. The Red Army captured Kiev on 3 February 1919.
General Denikin's military strength continued to grow in the spring of 1919. During several months in winter and spring of 1919 hard fighting with doubtful outcomes took place in the Donbas where the attacking Bolsheviks met White forces. At the same time Denikin's Armed Forces of South Russia (AFSR) completed the elimination of Red forces in the northern Caucasus and advanced towards Tsaritsyn. At the end of April and beginning of May the AFSR attacked on all fronts from the Dnepr to the Volga and by the beginning of the summer they had won numerous battles. French forces landed in Odessa but after having done almost no fighting withdrew on 8 April 1919. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. Denikin's troops took the cities of Kharkov and Belgorod. At the same time White troops under Wrangel's command took Tsaritsyn on 17 June 1919. On 20 June Denikin issued his Moscow directive ordering all AFSR units to prepare for a decisive offensive to take Moscow.
Although Great Britain had withdrawn its own troops from the theatre it continued to give significant military aid (money weapons food ammunition and some military advisers) to the White Armies during 1919. Major Ewen Cameron Bruce of the British Army had volunteered to command a British tank mission assisting the White Army. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40 000 prisoners. The fall of Tsaritsyn is viewed "as one of the key battles of the Russian Civil War" which greatly helped the White Russian cause. Notable historian Sir Basil Henry Liddell Hart comments that Bruce's tank action during this battle is to be seen as "one of the most remarkable feats in the whole history of the Tank Corps".
After the capture of Tsaritsyn Wrangel pushed towards Saratov but Trotsky seeing the danger of the union with Kolchak against whom the Red command was concentrating large masses of troops repulsed his attempts with heavy losses. When Kolchak's army in the east began to retreat in June and July the bulk of the Red Army free from any serious danger from Siberia was directed against Denikin.
Denikin's forces constituted a real threat and for a time threatened to reach Moscow. The Red Army stretched thin by fighting on all fronts was forced out of Kiev on 30 August. Kursk and Orel were taken on 20 September and 14 October respectively. The latter only 205 miles (330 km) from Moscow was the closest the AFSR would come to its target. The Cossack Don Army under the command of Gen. Vladimir Sidorin continued north towards Voronezh but there Semyon Budyonny's cavalrymen defeated them on 24 October. This allowed the Red Army to cross the Don River threatening to split the Don and Volunteer Armies. Fierce fighting took place at the key rail junction of Kastornoye which was taken on 15 November; Kursk was retaken two days later.
The high tide of the White movement against the Soviets had been reached in September 1919. By this time Denikin's forces were dangerously overextended. The White front had no depth or stability—it had become a series of patrols with occasional columns of slowly advancing troops without reserves. Lacking ammunition artillery and fresh reinforcements Denikin's army was decisively defeated in a series of battles in October and November 1919. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea.
While the White armies were being routed in Central Russia and the east they had succeeded in driving Nestor Makhno's anarchist Black Army (formally known as the Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine) out of part of southern Ukraine and the Crimea. Despite this setback Moscow was loath to aid Makhno and the Black Army and refused to provide arms to anarchist forces in Ukraine. The main body of White forces the Volunteers and the Don Army pulled back towards the Don to Rostov. The smaller body (Kiev and Odessa troops) withdrew to Odessa and the Crimea which it had managed to protect from the Bolsheviks during the winter of 1919–1920.
Central Asia (1919)
By February 1919 the British government had pulled its military forces out of Central Asia. Despite this success for the Red Army the White Army's assaults in European Russia and other areas broke communication between Moscow and Tashkent. For a time Central Asia was completely cut off from Red Army forces in Siberia. Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army the Bolsheviks continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. During this conference a regional bureau of Muslim organisations of the Russian Bolshevik Party was formed. The Bolshevik Party continued to try to gain support among the native population by giving them the impression of better representation for the Central Asian population and throughout the end of the year were able to maintain harmony with the Central Asian people.
Communication difficulties with Red Army forces in Siberia and European Russia ceased to be a problem by mid-November 1919. Due to Red Army successes north of Central Asia communication with Moscow was re-established and the Bolsheviks were able to claim victory over the White Army in Turkestan.
In the Ural-Guryev operation of 1919–1920 the Red Turkestan Front defeated the Ural Army. During winter 1920 Ural Cossacks and their families totaling about 15 000 people headed south along the eastern coast of the Caspian Sea towards Fort Alexandrovsk. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920. The Orenburg Independent Army was formed from Orenburg Cossacks and others troops which rebelled against the Bolsheviks. During the winter 1919–20 the Orenburg Army retreated to Semirechye in what is known as the Starving March as half of the participants perished. In March 1920 her remnants crossed the border into the Northwestern region of China.
South Russia Ukraine and Kronstadt (1920–21)
By the beginning of 1920 the main body of the Armed Forces of South Russia was rapidly retreating towards the Don to Rostov. Denikin hoped to hold the crossings of the Don then rest and reform his troops but the White Army was not able to hold the Don area and at the end of February 1920 started a retreat across Kuban towards Novorossiysk. Slipshod evacuation of Novorossiysk proved to be a dark event for the White Army. Russian and Allied ships evacuated about 40 000 of Denikin's men from Novorossiysk to the Crimea without horses or any heavy equipment while about 20 000 men were left behind and either dispersed or captured by the Red Army. Following the disastrous Novorossiysk evacuation Denikin stepped down and the military council elected Wrangel as the new Commander-in-Chief of the White Army. He was able to restore order to the dispirited troops and reshape an army that could fight as a regular force again. This remained an organized force in the Crimea throughout 1920.
After Moscow's Bolshevik government signed a military and political alliance with Nestor Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists the Black Army attacked and defeated several regiments of Wrangel's troops in southern Ukraine forcing him to retreat before he could capture that year's grain harvest.
Stymied in his efforts to consolidate his hold Wrangel then attacked north in an attempt to take advantage of recent Red Army defeats at the close of the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–1920. The Red Army eventually halted this offensive and Wrangel's troops had to retreat to Crimea in November 1920 pursued by both the Red and Black cavalry and infantry. Wrangel's fleet evacuated him and his army to Constantinople on 14 November 1920 ending the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia.
After the defeat of Wrangel the Red Army immediately repudiated its 1920 treaty of alliance with Nestor Makhno and attacked the anarchist Black Army; the campaign to liquidate Makhno and the Ukrainian anarchists began with an attempted assassination of Makhno by Cheka agents. Anger at continued repression by the Bolshevik Communist government and at its liberal use of the Cheka to put down anarchist elements led to a naval mutiny at Kronstadt in March 1921 followed by peasant revolts. Red Army attacks on the anarchist forces and their sympathisers increased in ferocity throughout 1921.
Siberia and the Far East (1920–22)
Main article: Far Eastern Front in the Russian Civil War
In Siberia Admiral Kolchak's army had disintegrated. He himself gave up command after the loss of Omsk and designated Gen. Grigory Semyonov as the new leader of the White Army in Siberia. Not long after this Kolchak was arrested by the disaffected Czechoslovak Corps as he traveled towards Irkutsk without the protection of the army and turned over to the socialist Political Centre in Irkutsk. Six days later this regime was replaced by a Bolshevik-dominated Military-Revolutionary Committee. On 6–7 February Kolchak and his prime minister Victor Pepelyaev were shot and their bodies were thrown through the ice of the frozen Angara River just before the arrival of the White Army in the area. :319–21
Remnants of Kolchak's army reached Transbaikalia and joined Semyonov's troops forming the Far Eastern army. With the support of the Japanese army it was able to hold Chita but after the withdrawal of Japanese soldiers from Transbaikalia Semenov's position became untenable and in November 1920 he was driven by the Red Army from Transbaikalia and took refuge in China. The Japanese who had plans to annex the Amur Krai finally pulled their troops out as Bolshevik forces gradually asserted control over the Russian Far East. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished.
The Russian Civil War (Russian: Гражданская война в России tr. Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossii) was a multi-party civil war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the two Russian revolutions of 1917 as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future. The two largest combatant groups were the Red Army fighting for the Bolshevik form of socialism led by Vladimir Lenin and the loosely allied forces known as the White Army which included diverse interests favouring political monarchism capitalism and social democracy each with democratic and anti-democratic variants. In addition rival militant socialists notably Makhnovia anarchists and Left SRs as well as non-ideological Green armies fought against both the Reds and the Whites. Thirteen foreign nations intervened against the Red Army notably the former Allied military forces from the just-concluded World War with the goal of re-establishing the Eastern Front. Three foreign nations of the Central Powers also intervened rivaling the Allied intervention with the main goal of retaining the territory they had received in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
After the revolution the Bolsheviks swept through Russia nearly unopposed. The republic had collapsed after the Soviets were given all political power leaving no solid resistance to the Reds. In May 1918 the Czech Legion in Russia revolted in Siberia. Reacting to this the Allies began an intervention in Northern Russia and Siberia. This combined with the creation of the Provisional All-Russian Government saw the reduction of the Bolsheviks to most of European Russia and parts of Central Asia. In November Alexander Kolchak launched a coup to take control of the Russian State establishing a de facto military dictatorship.
The White Army launched several attacks from the East in March the South in July and West in October 1919. These advances were later checked with the Eastern Front counteroffensive the Southern Front counteroffensive and defeat of the Northwestern Army. The White Movement also suffered greater loss as the Allies pulled back from North and South Russia. With the main base of the Russian SFSR secured the Soviets could now strike back.
The armies under Kolchak were eventually forced on a mass retreat east. Soviet forces advanced east despite encountering resistance in Chita Yakut and Mongolia. Soon the Red Army split the Don and Volunteer armies forcing an evacuation in Novorossiysk in March and Crimea in November 1920. White resistance was sporadic for two years until the collapse of the White Army in Yakut in June 1923 but went on in Central Asia and Khabarovsk Krai until 1934. There were an estimated 7 to 12 million casualties during the war mostly civilians. :287
Many pro-independence movements emerged after the break-up of the Russian Empire and fought in the war. :7 Several parts of the former Russian Empire—Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania and Poland—were established as sovereign states with their own civil wars and wars of independence. The rest of the former Russian Empire was consolidated into the Soviet Union shortly afterwards.